North Carolina Architects and Builders - A Biographical Dictionary

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Bauer, Adolphus Gustavus (1858-1898)

Birthplace: Martinsburg, West Virginia, USA
Residences:
  • Wilmington, North Carolina
  • Raleigh, North Carolina
  • Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Trades:
  • Architect
NC Work Locations:
  • Wadesboro, Anson County
  • Anson
  • Morganton, Burke County
  • Burke
  • Durham, Durham County
  • Durham
  • Wilmington, New Hanover County
  • New Hanover
  • Chapel Hill, Orange County
  • Orange
  • Raleigh, Wake County
  • Wake
  • Goldsboro, Wayne County
  • Wayne
Building Types:
  • Commercial;
  • Health Care;
  • Public;
  • Religious;
  • Residential
Styles & Forms:
  • Gothic Revival;
  • Queen Anne;
  • Romanesque Revival

Baptist Female University [Raleigh]

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Baptist Female University [Raleigh]

Biography

A. G. Bauer (December 4, 1858-May 11, 1898), architect, designed some of North Carolina's most imposing and ebulliently stylish buildings of the late 19th century. He came to North Carolina in 1883 as assistant to architect Samuel Sloan of Philadelphia at a time when the state was embarking on major postwar projects but had few professionally trained resident architects. After Sloan's death in 1884, Bauer completed some of his former employer's projects, and subsequently established his own practice that included edifices from Wilmington to Morganton and, chiefly, in Raleigh.

Bauer was born in Martinsburg, Virginia (present West Virginia), the youngest son of Frederick and Sophia Bauer, immigrants from Hanover, Germany. Soon after 1870, the family settled in Bellaire, Ohio, where he spent the remainder of his youth. He was graduated from Bethany College in West Virginia in 1879. After working in Pittsburgh for two years and studying at the Iron City Business College, he entered the Philadelphia Academy of Fine Arts. There he met Samuel Sloan (1815-1884), an important Philadelphia architect then struggling to maintain his practice. Sloan hired him as his draftsman in 1881.

In 1883 Bauer accompanied Sloan on a trip south to assist on commissions under way in North Carolina. Sloan established an office in Raleigh in 1884. In a personal memoir, Bauer recalled that as Sloan's draftsman, he produced all or part of the working drawings for such important North Carolina projects as the Executive Mansion in Raleigh, Memorial Hall in Chapel Hill, and the Western North Carolina Hospital for the Insane in Morganton.

In July, 1884, Sloan died unexpectedly of sunstroke, leaving Bauer to handle the projects then under construction and others only in the planning stages. To finish the Executive Mansion in Raleigh, Bauer worked closely with contractor William J. Hicks, architect and superintendent of the state penitentiary, and he finished up work on the Chapel Hill and Morganton jobs. In Raleigh, he planned and supervised the Centennial Graded School (1885), originally a Sloan commission, and he took a role in designing other buildings in the capital in association with Hicks and others.

In 1887, he set off for the burgeoning port city of Wilmington, where he assumed the role of contractor as well as designer. There he displayed his growing propensity for highly irregular and dramatic forms, as in the Queen Anne-Shingle style Rufus W. Hicks House (1887) and the Gothic Revival style St. Andrews Presbyterian Church (1887). In 1889, in the midst of a disagreement over the unfinished Hicks project in Wilmington, Bauer left North Carolina. He first embarked on a six month tour of Europe. After returning to the United States in March, 1890, he worked briefly as a draftsman in New York, Chicago, Cincinnati, Lexington, Kentucky (for local architect Herman L. Rowe), and Atlanta (for architect Gottfried L. Norrman, master of an extraordinary range of styles and forms). In the fall of 1890, Bauer moved to establish his own practice and opened an office in Chattanooga.

In 1891, however, he returned to North Carolina at the invitation of Governor Daniel G. Fowle. He promptly took on two major state-sponsored commissions, both in Morganton: the Western North Carolina Hospital for the Insane to expand the complex he had completed from Sloan's designs; and, one of his largest and best known works, the North Carolina School for the Deaf. With these projects and added experience under his belt, Bauer entered a new chapter in his career in North Carolina. In the 1890s he designed some of the state's premier examples of the nationally popular Queen Anne style, including large and complex buildings replete with towers and turrets and irregular and dramatic plans and forms. Although many of his buildings of this creative period have been lost, a few survive as prime landmarks of their era.

The North Carolina School for the Deaf, a grand, towered edifice, displayed Bauer's flair for the Queen Anne style as well as his ability to organize a complex and highly specialized facility, using an E-plan scheme similar to the plan Sloan had employed at the asylum. The school is among the most important examples of late 19th century architecture still standing in the state, remarkable as a survivor from a period and mode of architecture almost entirely lost.

The Morganton projects were soon followed by other major commissions in various cities. In Raleigh, Bauer planned edifices in the High Victorian modes (all now lost), which did much to transform the architectural character of the city: the Park Hotel (1892) and the Academy of Music (1892) for Cary railroad man and contractor Alison Frank Page; the Pullen Building (1894) for Raleigh developer Richard Stanhope Pullen; the Raleigh Fire Headquarters (1895); and the huge, multi-porched Baptist Female University (1895-1899), a fitting neighbor to the Sloan's and Bauer's Executive Mansion just across the street.

By 1895, the maturing architect was at the height of his powers. His patrons included many prominent institutions and people, and with news and images of his projects appearing regularly in the Raleigh newspapers, he was something of a local celebrity. Meanwhile, in his personal life, after returning to Raleigh in 1891, he fell in love with the beautiful young Rachel Blythe, the daughter of a Cherokee mother and a white father. Because of state law forbidding marriage between whites and Indians, the two married in a secret ceremony in 1894, and then, after Rachel became pregnant, held a more official service in Washington, D. C. in June, 1895. After the second wedding, they lived openly and happily as man and wife, together with their daughter, Owenah, who was born in October, 1895.

In 1896, however, Bauer's fortunes took a sudden turn for the worse. On May 2, he was riding in an open carriage in Durham along with contractor Charles N. Norton to visit a building site (Durham's First Baptist Church). Their carriage was struck by a fast-moving train at a railroad crossing, and both men were severely injured. After the accident and a period of hospitalization at the North Carolina Hospital for the Insane (Dorothea Dix Hospital) in Raleigh, Bauer suffered continually from spells of dizziness and depression and was unable to concentrate long enough to design new buildings. He wrote to his sister in July, 1896, "Last May, when the accident occurred, it seemed to me I was going to do a better years business than ever. I had a great many orders on hand, but when people read from the papers that I was dying, or if I did not die, I would never be able to do work again, they all went to other Architects, and so when I got well enough to get out and try to do work, there was nothing to do but a couple of jobs. If I had them on hand, however, I [would] not feel competent or able to attend to them."

A suit against the railroad company proceeded slowly and without results. Rachel, who had been ill much of the fall, gave birth to their second child December 27, 1896. On January 9, 1897, Rachel died at age 26. Bauer was forced to disperse their "little family" by sending their infant children to live with Rachel's relatives. Settling with the railroad company for a reduced sum in order to erect a memorial for Rachel, Bauer created a lovely monument in Raleigh's Oakwood Cemetery, with a little Classical temple and Rachel's wedding photograph in a porcelain plaque. Over the next year, despite intensifying headaches, dizziness, and amnesia, Bauer managed one last flurry of public and residential work in Raleigh. Continuing his favored Queen Anne style, he planned the Lucy Catherine Capehart House (1897), one of Raleigh's best examples of the late Queen Anne mode; the remodeling of the William H. Worth House (1898); and additions to the Colored Deaf and Dumb School (1898). On May 11, 1898, alone in his room, Bauer killed himself with a single gunshot.

As he desired, Bauer was buried beside Rachel in Oakwood Cemetery. Though dying before he was forty, he left a legacy of some of the state's most dramatic "New South" buildings, displaying the eclectic styles of the day at their most ebullient. Many of his buildings were destroyed in the mid-20th century, some of them only a few years before the pendulum of taste swung back to appreciation of the architecture of the Victorian era. These survive in photographs, complementing the standing monuments of his short, creative, and restless life.

Author: William B. Bushong. Update: Catherine W. Bishir.

Published 2009

Building List

North Carolina School for the Deaf (Morganton, Burke County)

Burke Morganton

1891

Variant Name(s):
  • School for the Deaf and Dumb
Contributors:
Dates: 1891
Location: Morganton, Burke County
Street Address: US 64 at Fleming Dr., Morganton, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Health Care
Images Published In:
  • Catherine W. Bishir, Michael T. Southern, and Jennifer F. Martin, A Guide to the Historic Architecture of Western North Carolina (1999).
  • William B. Bushong, "A. G. Bauer, North Carolina's New South Architect," North Carolina Historical Review, Vol. 60, No. 3 (July, 1983).

North Carolina School for the Deaf

First Baptist Church (Durham, Durham County)

Durham Durham

1877

Contributors:
Dates: 1877; ca. 1895-1896 [remodeled]
Location: Durham, Durham County
Street Address: N. Mangum St., Durham, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Religious
Images Published In:
  • William B. Bushong, "A. G. Bauer, North Carolina's New South Architect," North Carolina Historical Review, Vol. 60, No. 3 (July, 1983).
  • Joel A. Kostyu and Frank A. Kostyu, Durham: A Pictorial History (1978).

First Baptist Church

Rufus W. Hicks House (Wilmington, New Hanover County)

New Hanover Wilmington

1887

Contributors:
Dates: 1887
Location: Wilmington, New Hanover County
Street Address: Wilmington, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Residential
Images Published In:
  • William B. Bushong, "A. G. Bauer, North Carolina's New South Architect," North Carolina Historical Review, Vol. 60, No. 3 (July, 1983).
  • Emma Woodward MacMillan, Wilmington's Vanished Homes and Buildings (1966).

Rufus W. Hicks Store (Wilmington, New Hanover County)

New Hanover Wilmington

1887

Contributors:
Dates: 1887
Location: Wilmington, New Hanover County
Street Address: Wilmington, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Commercial

St. Andrews Presbyterian Church (Wilmington, New Hanover County)

New Hanover Wilmington

1888

Contributors:
Dates: 1888-1889
Location: Wilmington, New Hanover County
Street Address: 520 N. 4th St., Wilmington, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Religious
Images Published In:
  • William B. Bushong, "A. G. Bauer, North Carolina's New South Architect," North Carolina Historical Review, Vol. 60, No. 3 (July, 1983).
  • Beverly Tetterton, Wilmington: Lost But Not Forgotten (2005).

Memorial Hall (Chapel Hill, Orange County)

Orange Chapel Hill

1883

Contributors:
Dates: 1883-1885
Location: Chapel Hill, Orange County
Street Address: University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Educational
Images Published In:
  • Catherine W. Bishir, North Carolina Architecture (1990).
  • William B. Bushong, "A. G. Bauer, North Carolina's New South Architect," North Carolina Historical Review, Vol. 60, No. 3 (July, 1983).

Memorial Hall

Executive Mansion (Raleigh, Wake County)

Wake Raleigh

1883

Contributors:
Dates: 1883-1891
Location: Raleigh, Wake County
Street Address: N. Blount St., Raleigh, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Public
Images Published In:
  • Catherine W. Bishir, North Carolina Architecture (1990).
  • Catherine W. Bishir and Michael T. Southern, A Guide to the Historic Architecture of Piedmont North Carolina (2003).
  • William Bushong, North Carolina's Executive Mansion: The First Hundred Years (1991).
Note:

For the full story of the development of the Executive Mansion, including the original design by Samuel Sloan and its alterations, see William Bushong, North Carolina's Executive Mansion: The First Hundred Years (1991).

Executive Mansion

State Exposition Building (Raleigh, Wake County)

Wake Raleigh

1884

Contributors:
Dates: 1884
Location: Raleigh, Wake County
Street Address: Raleigh, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Public
Images Published In:
  • Catherine W. Bishir, Charlotte V. Brown, Carl R. Lounsbury, and Ernest H. Wood III, Architects and Builders in North Carolina: A History of the Practice of Building (1990).
Note:

The large, impermanent exhibition building, prefabricated of wood and encompassing 75,000 square feet of exhibit space, was built by the North Carolina Car Company for a state exposition that represented rebuilding and renewal after the Civil War.

Supreme Court Building (Raleigh, Wake County)

Wake Raleigh

1885

Variant Name(s):
  • Labor Building
Contributors:
Dates: 1885
Location: Raleigh, Wake County
Street Address: W. Edenton St. at Salisbury St., Raleigh, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Public
Images Published In:
  • William B. Bushong, "A. G. Bauer, North Carolina's New South Architect," North Carolina Historical Review, Vol. 60, No. 3 (July, 1983).
  • Elizabeth C. Waugh, North Carolina's Capital, Raleigh (1967).
Note:

The photograph shows the Supreme Court Building on the left.

Supreme Court Building

Tabernacle Baptist Church (Raleigh, Wake County)

Wake Raleigh

1879

Contributors:
Dates: 1879-1881, 1891 [remodeled], 1909 [remodeled]
Location: Raleigh, Wake County
Street Address: E. Hargett St. at Person St., Raleigh, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Religious
Images Published In:
  • Linda L. Harris and Mary Ann Lee, An Architectural and Historical Inventory of Raleigh, North Carolina (1978).

Tabernacle Baptist Church

Academy of Music (Raleigh, Wake County)

Wake Raleigh

1892

Contributors:
  • A. G. Bauer, architect;
  • Allison Francis Page, contractor
Dates: 1892
Location: Raleigh, Wake County
Street Address: 302-304 S. Salisbury St., Raleigh, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Educational
Images Published In:
  • William B. Bushong, "A. G. Bauer, North Carolina's New South Architect," North Carolina Historical Review, Vol. 60, No. 3 (July, 1983).
  • Steven Stolpen, Raleigh : A Pictorial History (1977).

Park Hotel (Raleigh, Wake County)

Wake Raleigh

1894

Variant Name(s):
  • Park Central Hotel
Contributors:
Dates: 1894
Location: Raleigh, Wake County
Street Address: S. McDowell St., Raleigh, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Commercial
Images Published In:
  • William B. Bushong, "A. G. Bauer, North Carolina's New South Architect," North Carolina Historical Review, Vol. 60, No. 3 (July, 1983).
  • Elizabeth C. Waugh, North Carolina's Capital, Raleigh (1967).

Park Hotel

Pullen Building (Raleigh, Wake County)

Wake Raleigh

1894

Contributors:
Dates: 1894
Location: Raleigh, Wake County
Street Address: 336 Fayetteville St. (at Davie St.), Raleigh, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Commercial
Images Published In:
  • William B. Bushong, "A. G. Bauer, North Carolina's New South Architect," North Carolina Historical Review, Vol. 60, No. 3 (July, 1983).

Pullen Building

First Presbyterian Church (Raleigh, Wake County)

Wake Raleigh

1894

Contributors:
Dates: 1894
Location: Raleigh, Wake County
Street Address: Raleigh, NC
Status: Unbuilt
Type:
  • Religious
Note:

A design for Raleigh's First Presbyterian Church, prepared by Bauer, was exhibited in 1894, but it was several years before the congregation erected a church, which was designed by architect Charles E. Cassell of Baltimore.

Baptist Female University (Raleigh, Wake County)

Wake Raleigh

1895

Variant Name(s):
  • Mansion Park Hotel
Contributors:
Dates: 1895-1899
Location: Raleigh, Wake County
Street Address: N. Blount St. at E. Jones St., Raleigh, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Educational
Images Published In:
  • Catherine W. Bishir, North Carolina Architecture (1990).
  • William B. Bushong, "A. G. Bauer, North Carolina's New South Architect," North Carolina Historical Review, Vol. 60, No. 3 (July, 1983).
  • Elizabeth C. Waugh, North Carolina's Capital, Raleigh (1967).
Note:

Considered to be Bauer's masterpiece. Along with his School for the Deaf and Dumb in Morganton, the huge brick edifice was one of the state's premier examples of the Queen Anne style. It was demolished by the state as a site for an office building in 1967, but the site remains vacant and used for a parking lot as of 2008.

Baptist Female University

Raleigh Fire Headquarters (Raleigh, Wake County)

Wake Raleigh

1895

Contributors:
Dates: 1895
Location: Raleigh, Wake County
Street Address: Morgan St., Raleigh, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Public
Images Published In:
  • Steven Stolpen, Raleigh : A Pictorial History (1977).

Colored Deaf and Dumb School (Raleigh, Wake County)

Wake Raleigh

1897

Contributors:
Dates: 1897
Location: Raleigh, Wake County
Street Address: S. Blount St., Raleigh, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Educational
Images Published In:
  • William B. Bushong, "A. G. Bauer, North Carolina's New South Architect," North Carolina Historical Review, Vol. 60, No. 3 (July, 1983).

Lucy Catherine Capehart House (Raleigh, Wake County)

Wake Raleigh

1897

Contributors:
Dates: 1897-1898
Location: Raleigh, Wake County
Street Address: 400 block N. Blount St., Raleigh, NC
Status: Moved
Type:
  • Residential
Images Published In:
  • William Bushong, North Carolina's Executive Mansion: The First Hundred Years (1991).
  • Linda L. Harris and Mary Ann Lee, An Architectural and Historical Inventory of Raleigh, North Carolina (1978).
Note:

The Capehart House originally stood on N. Wilmington St. but was moved to N. Blount St. in the late 20th century to avoid demolition for development of the state government mall.

William H. Worth House (Raleigh, Wake County)

Wake Raleigh

1898

Contributors:
Dates: 1898 [remodeled]
Location: Raleigh, Wake County
Street Address: Raleigh, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Residential

Norburn Terrace (Raleigh, Wake County)

Wake Raleigh

1898

Contributors:
Dates: 1898
Location: Raleigh, Wake County
Street Address: N. Person St., Raleigh, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Residential
Images Published In:
  • Linda L. Harris and Mary Ann Lee, An Architectural and Historical Inventory of Raleigh, North Carolina (1978).
Note:

Family tradition credited Bauer with the design of the brick house with tower; no documentation supports the attribution.

North Carolina Insane Asylum for the Colored (Goldsboro, Wayne County)

Wayne Goldsboro

1895

Variant Name(s):
  • Eastern Insane Asylum;
  • Cherry Hospital
Contributors:
Dates: 1895
Location: Goldsboro, Wayne County
Street Address: Goldsboro, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Health Care
Images Published In:
  • William B. Bushong, "A. G. Bauer, North Carolina's New South Architect," North Carolina Historical Review, Vol. 60, No. 3 (July, 1983).

North Carolina Insane Asylum for the Colored

Odd Fellows Home (Goldsboro, Wayne County)

Wayne Goldsboro

1895

Contributors:
Dates: 1895-1896
Location: Goldsboro, Wayne County
Street Address: Goldsboro, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Fraternal
Images Published In:
  • William B. Bushong, "A. G. Bauer, North Carolina's New South Architect," North Carolina Historical Review, Vol. 60, No. 3 (July, 1983).

Odd Fellows Home

Anson County Courthouse (Wadesboro, Anson County)

Anson Wadesboro

1893

Contributors:
Dates: 1893 [remodeled]
Location: Wadesboro, Anson County
Street Address: Wadesboro, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Public
Images Published In:
  • Mary Louise Medley, History of Anson County, 1750-1976 (1976).
Note:

The towered building near the center of the postcard view is probably the courthouse as remodeled by Bauer.

Anson County Courthouse

National Hotel (Raleigh, Wake County)

Wake Raleigh

1812

Variant Name(s):
  • State Agriculture Building;
  • Guion Hotel;
  • Eagle Hotel
Contributors:
Dates: 1812; 1870; 1883 [remodeled]; 1899-1900 [addition]
Location: Raleigh, Wake County
Street Address: NW corner Edenton St. and Halifax St., Raleigh, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Commercial;
  • Public
Images Published In:
  • William B. Bushong, "A. G. Bauer, North Carolina's New South Architect," North Carolina Historical Review, Vol. 60, No. 3 (July, 1983).
  • Elizabeth C. Waugh, North Carolina's Capital, Raleigh (1967).
Note:

The hotel facing the North Carolina State Capitol began operation in 1812 as the Eagle Hotel, and operated under various names over the years. By 1870, it had been expanded into a large brick building with double porches. In 1883 it was remodeled by A. G. Bauer to house state offices, and it was headquarters of the state\'s agricultural department. It was expanded dramatically in 1899-1900; the News and Observer of August 24, 1899, cited the State Agriculture Building then under construction as the work of Pearson and Ashe. In 1896 it appeared on the Sanborn Map as the State Agriculture Building and State Museum, and by 1903 (Sanborn Map), it had an immense addition that extended down Halifax Street and around the corner on Jones Street. That building was razed to build the current Agriculture Building (1922-1923) by G. Murray Nelson and Thomas Wright Cooper.

National Hotel

St. Mary's School (Raleigh, Wake County)

Wake Raleigh

1883

Variant Name(s):
  • Language Arts Building
Contributors:
Dates: 1883-1887
Location: Raleigh, Wake County
Street Address: St. Mary's Campus, Hillsborough St., Raleigh, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Educational
Note:

The News and Observer of June 20, 1883, cited a commission for Sloan and published specifications. The Language Arts Building, dated 1887, has features in common with the Executive Mansion; whether it was the work of Sloan or perhaps Bauer after him has not been determined.

Centennial Graded School (Raleigh, Wake County)

Wake Raleigh

1883

Contributors:
Dates: 1883-1885
Location: Raleigh, Wake County
Street Address: South St. at S end of Fayetteville St., Raleigh, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Educational
Note:

The commission for Raleigh's Centennial Graded School was awarded to architect Samuel Sloan on August 1, 1883, and construction began in November. After Sloan's death in 1884, the project was completed by his associate A. G. Bauer in 1885. The public school opened in 1876—thus the name—in the old Governor's Palace (see James Calder) that stood in a prominent position "at the foot of Fayetteville Street." Notable as an early graded school in the state, Centennial encompassed primary grades through high school. It marked the beginnings of Raleigh's public school system. After the Governor's Palace was torn down, the new school was built in 1883-1885, reusing bricks from the previous building. The 1880s school was razed in 1931 and replaced by Raleigh's Memorial Auditorium (see Atwood and Weeks). See Harold N. Cooledge, Jr., "Samuel Sloan, Architect of Philadelphia" (1986); William B. Bushong, "A. G. Bauer, North Carolina's New South Architect" (1983); and Murray and Johnson, "Wake: Capital County of North Carolina, Vol. II: Reconstruction to 1920" (2008).

Western North Carolina Hospital for the Insane (Morganton, Burke County)

Burke Morganton

1875

Variant Name(s):
  • Broughton Hospital
Contributors:
Dates: 1875-1883; 1886 [addition]; 1890s [addition]
Location: Morganton, Burke County
Street Address: Broughton Rd., Morganton, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Health Care
Images Published In:
  • Catherine W. Bishir, North Carolina Architecture (1990).
  • Catherine W. Bishir, Michael T. Southern, and Jennifer F. Martin, A Guide to the Historic Architecture of Western North Carolina (1999).
  • William B. Bushong, "A. G. Bauer, North Carolina's New South Architect," North Carolina Historical Review, Vol. 60, No. 3 (July, 1983).
  • Harold N. Cooledge, Jr., Samuel Sloan, Architect of Philadelphia, 1814-1884 (1986).
Note:

Completion of the Western North Carolina Hospital for the Insane, as designed by Samuel Sloan and with James Walker serving as contractor, was delayed due to financial problems and stopped in 1883, with only the central section and one wing completed. After Sloan's death in 1884, A. G. Bauer designed the building's north wing, which was built in 1886. An annex was added a few years later.

Western North Carolina Hospital for the Insane

A. G. Bauer's Work Locations

Bibliography

  • Charlotte Vestal Brown Papers, Special Collections Research Center, North Carolina State University Libraries, Raleigh, North Carolina.
  • William B. Bushong, "A. G. Bauer, North Carolina's New South Architect," North Carolina Historical Review, Vol. 60, No. 3 (July, 1983).
  • Carmine Prioli, "The Indian 'Princess' and the Architect: Origin of North Carolina Legend," North Carolina Historical Review, Vol. 60, No. 3 (July, 1983).
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