North Carolina Architects and Builders - A Biographical Dictionary

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Milburn, Frank Pierce (1868-1926)

Variant Name(s):
  • Frank P. Milburn
Birthplace: Bowling Green, Kentucky, USA
Residences:
  • Kentucky
  • West Virginia
  • North Carolina
  • Washington, D.C.
Trades:
  • Architect
NC Work Locations:
  • Asheville, Buncombe County
  • Buncombe
  • Morganton, Burke County
  • Burke
  • Durham, Durham County
  • Durham
  • Rocky Mount, Edgecombe County
  • Edgecombe
  • Winston-Salem, Forsyth County
  • Forsyth
  • Gastonia, Gaston County
  • Gaston
  • Greensboro, Guilford County
  • Guilford
  • Oak Ridge, Guilford County
  • Guilford
  • Raeford, Hoke County
  • Hoke
  • Charlotte, Mecklenburg County
  • Mecklenburg
  • Rocky Mount, Nash County
  • Nash
  • Orange County
  • Orange
  • Chapel Hill, Orange County
  • Orange
  • Elizabeth City, Pasquotank County
  • Pasquotank
  • Greenville, Pitt County
  • Pitt
  • Lumberton, Robeson County
  • Robeson
  • Wentworth, Rockingham County
  • Rockingham
  • Salisbury, Rowan County
  • Rowan
  • Spencer, Rowan County
  • Rowan
  • Bryson City, Swain County
  • Swain
  • Henderson, Vance County
  • Vance
  • Raleigh, Wake County
  • Wake
  • Warrenton, Warren County
  • Warren
  • Goldsboro, Wayne County
  • Wayne
Building Types:
  • Commercial;
  • Educational;
  • Public;
  • Residential;
  • Transportation
Styles & Forms:
  • Beaux-Arts;
  • Colonial Revival;
  • Gothic Revival;
  • Romanesque Revival;
  • Skyscraper

Southern Railway Station [Asheville]

View larger image and credits

Southern Railway Station [Asheville]

Biography

Frank Pierce Milburn (December 12, 1868-September 21, 1926), an energetic New South architect, designed more than forty-five major buildings in North Carolina. He also established the first truly regional practice in the South. Milburn worked throughout the southern states and in Kentucky, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia. Historian Lawrence Wodehouse estimated that he designed at least 250 major structures and numerous domestic buildings. In North Carolina, his work included thirteen courthouses, six railroad stations, thirteen buildings at the University of North Carolina, and at least fifteen large commercial buildings. Working at first on his own, and beginning in 1909 with the firm of Milburn, Heister, and Company, he advanced his career through a combination of aggressive self-promotion, specialization in public and commercial buildings, and innovative business practices. Throughout his career, both alone and as Milburn, Heister and Company, Milburn published several well-illustrated promotional booklets, which contain images of his works. Several of these are listed in the bibliography. In many ways, he set a new standard for architectural practice in the South.

Milburn was born in Bowling Green, Kentucky, the son of Rebecca Anne (Sutphin) and Thomas T. Milburn. He studied at Arkansas Industrial University in Fayetteville, Arkansas (1882-1883) and began working in the building trades at the age of seventeen. His formative training came from his father, a builder who had designed and erected courthouses in three Kentucky counties during the 1870s. The younger Milburn learned about architecture, as he would later recall, in a time and place where no distinctions between "architects" and "builders" existed. He was, as he put it, "a practical architect"--trained through firsthand experience rather than academic study.

Milburn's career unfolded in three distinct phases. The first spanned the 1890s. In these years, he established himself as a rising star and moved frequently to take on important commissions. After working alongside his father on the design and construction of courthouses for Clay and Powell counties, Kentucky, he established an independent practice in Kenova, West Virginia, about 1890. For the next several years, he concentrated almost exclusively on courthouses, a building type that would become one of his specialties. Commissions for courthouses in Kentucky and West Virginia helped him begin building a reputation as an architect of public buildings.

As winner of the design competition for a new courthouse in Forsyth County, North Carolina, Milburn took an important step along this path. He moved to Winston in 1893 to supervise construction of this structure, a flamboyantly styled Romanesque Revival building with a bold tower, an offset entrance, and rock-faced stonework. It was his largest commission to date and brought him considerable attention. It also helped him secure other commissions in the Carolina Piedmont. Here, a boom in textile mill construction had created a strong building market, and Milburn was one of many architects who rushed to take advantage of the opportunities it presented.

As work on the Forsyth County Courthouse wrapped up, Milburn started on a new project for the Mecklenburg County Courthouse (ca. 1897) in the fast-growing Piedmont industrial and business city of Charlotte. Then, about 1900, he received the contract to complete the South Carolina Statehouse. That building had been started in the 1850s but remained unfinished a half century later, a victim of the state's limited finances after the Civil War. By adding a dome and porticos, Milburn gave it the full range of features typical of statehouses across the nation. The project became mired in controversy soon after it began, however. The legislative commission overseeing the project found evidence of fraud and other wrongdoings, and the state of South Carolina sued Milburn and the contractor for damages. The case ended in a mistrial, and Milburn escaped with his reputation intact. While this episode played out, he continued to pursue other commissions. Now supported by a small design staff, he carried out commercial projects in several sites in the Carolinas. In Charlotte, for example, he designed the Piedmont Fire Insurance Building, the Stonewall Hotel, and the Charlotte Sanatorium (all ca. 1903). Despite Milburn's numerous projects in the Queen City, few have survived the city's subsequent growth and rebuilding.

In the years around 1900, Milburn's practice entered a transitional phase. It began with commissions for the Southern Railway and ultimately led him to relocate his practice to Washington, D.C. In these years, Milburn added railroad stations to his specialties and acquired the skills and experience needed to compete in a larger market. Although he continued to design commercial and public buildings in the Southeast, he set his sights on working in a major city where he could earn greater financial and professional rewards.

Milburn began work for the Southern in the late 1890s, when he designed a series of railroad stations for the company in cities across the Southeast. The success of these projects led the company to appoint him its official architect in 1902. Milburn's affiliation with the Southern, then the largest rail system in the Southeast, bolstered his already formidable reputation and brought him considerable publicity. He ultimately designed eight union depots (shared by two or more railroads) and eleven independent stations for the company. Most were flamboyant Spanish Revival buildings with soaring towers, lavish ornamentation, and sumptuous waiting rooms. In North Carolina, Milburn designed union stations in Winston (1904), Asheville (ca. 1905), and Durham (1904-05) and independent stations in Charlotte (ca. 1907) and Salisbury (1908); of these, only the handsome, towered Salisbury Passenger Depot still stands. His work for the Southern required extensive travel, which made it possible for him to design public and commercial buildings as far west as Mississippi and Louisiana. It also led to commissions for other railroad buildings. In North Carolina, for example, he designed two stations for the Raleigh and Pamlico Sound Railroad, one in Wilson, the other in Greenville (both ca. 1902).

Milburn's work with the Southern Railway capped a remarkable first decade for the young and enterprising architect. By about 1900, he was reputed to have the largest architectural practice below the Mason-Dixon Line, a fact that spoke volumes about his skill as a designer and talent for selling his services. That he achieved this distinction so early in his career made it all the more impressive. Not only had he proven his ability to design large public and commercial buildings, but he was the first architect to work throughout the South. Whereas some of his contemporaries worked on a sub-regional basis--Charlotte architect C. C. Hook, for example, designed buildings across North Carolina--Milburn's practice covered six southeastern states--Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia--and also reached into Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, and Louisiana. Among architects working in the region, the geographic scope and volume of his work were unprecedented.

Milburn effectively introduced a new model for architectural practice to the South. At the outset of the 20th century, the region remained overwhelmingly rural; only large cities could support the services of professional architects. Fragmentation and economic volatility characterized its building market. These conditions made it difficult for many architects to sustain a practice, and some found it impossible to earn a living. Milburn's solution was to specialize in certain types of buildings--courthouses, railroad stations, and, after about 1905, steel-frame office towers. This strategy was not part of a preconceived plan but instead grew out of his initial focus on courthouses and developed as opportunities arose. It did not preclude him from taking on other commissions; he also designed houses, warehouses, schools, and hotels. Nonetheless, it set him apart from virtually all of his contemporaries, who tended to serve clients in a localized area (at most on a one- or two-state basis), designed a wide variety of buildings (often taking whatever commissions were available), and saw their fortunes rise and fall with the local economy. The trend toward specialization gained strength as other architects began concentrating on specific building types such as schools, textile mills, and office towers, but at the dawn of the 20th century, Milburn stood virtually alone.

Milburn had to travel constantly to cover such a broad territory, but this too opened up opportunities, for it helped him exploit the limited demand for architectural services in the small towns of the South. Use of a streamlined design process also increased his efficiency. Milburn made extensive use of standardized plans, which limited the time he spent at the drafting table. In the early 1890s, for example, he developed a courthouse design with corner towers, curvilinear gables, and Romanesque accents that could be adapted for budgets between $15,000 and $21,000. At least seven examples were built: four in Kentucky, one in Virginia, and two in West Virginia. He later developed a conservative Neoclassical design with columnar porticoes, dentil cornices, and a cupola. Examples were built with minor variations in at least fifteen counties.

The third phase of Milburn's career took shape toward the end of the first decade of the 20th century. From 1902 to 1906, Milburn split his time between the corporate headquarters of the Southern Railway in Washington, D.C., and Columbia, where he continued to maintain an office. In 1906, he left the Southern Railway and relocated his office to Washington in order to capitalize on the growing demand for public and commercial buildings. As his workload increased, he formed a partnership with Michael Heister, a young designer who had headed Milburn's drafting department since 1903. In January 1909 the pair announced that their reorganized firm would be called Milburn, Heister, and Company. In the years that followed, the firm became one of the most successful in Washington, producing designs for more than fifteen tall office buildings, most of them in the Beaux Arts idiom, and a host of public, institutional, and commercial buildings.

Even as their practice in Washington thrived, Milburn and Heister continued to take on projects in Virginia, West Virginia, and especially North Carolina. When North Carolina passed a state law authorizing licensing of architects in 1915, Michael Heister and F. P. Milburn were quick to register, becoming licensed architects #2 and #3, respectively, in the state in June, 1915.Their major commissions of the period in the Old North State included steel-frame office towers with classical styling such as the Independence Building (Realty Building) in Charlotte (1908-1909), the First National Bank Building (1913-1915) in Durham, and the Wachovia Bank and Trust Company Building (1911, 1917-1918) in Winston-Salem. At the University of North Carolina, Milburn and then Milburn and Heister designed thirteen buildings in the eclectic and classical styles of the day, including Alumni Hall (1898-1901), the President's House (1907), and the Battle-Vance-Pettigrew Dormitory (1912). Courthouses also remained a specialty, and the firm planned buildings for at least eight North Carolina counties. The largest of these was the towering Buncombe County Courthouse in Asheville, a classical design selected by the county commissioners over an Art Deco design proposed by Douglas D. Ellington as a partner to his City Building (see Douglas D. Ellington).

Stylistically, eclecticism characterized Milburn's early career. His designs typically blended Romanesque and Italianate influences, and he garnered a well-deserved reputation for producing bold, forceful compositions. His railroad station designs won particular acclaim. Many featured his distinctive interpretation of the Spanish Revival style. In the first decades of the 20th century, in part because of Heister's influence, he began to adopt the vocabulary of Beaux Arts classicism, which resulted in a more coherent and forceful approach to design. This shift became even more pronounced after Heister became a full partner in 1909 and resulted in some of the firm's finest work. In the 1910s and 1920s, Milburn and Heister excelled at producing buildings that displayed the restrained, conservative styling that by then had become the favored idiom for public, institutional, and commercial buildings.

About 1920, Milburn and Heister established a branch office in Durham. This allowed them to compete for small commissions in eastern North Carolina that would have otherwise gone to local architects. Milburn entrusted management of the office to his son, Thomas Yancey Milburn (born 1889 [World War I draft registration card] or 1891 [Social Security death record] and died 1977), a 1914 graduate of the University of North Carolina who had subsequently studied architecture at the University of Pennsylvania. Thomas Milburn served in World War I, married Mary J. O'Brien of Durham in 1920, and lived for a time in Washington. He oversaw the design of such buildings as the Durham Auditorium (Carolina Theatre) (1926) and a new high school (1930) in Durham, and the Professional Building in Raleigh (1925).

Frank P. Milburn resigned as president of Milburn, Heister and Company in 1925. He died in Asheville, North Carolina, on September 21, 1926, at the age of 56. Michael Heister and Thomas Yancey Milburn continued their practice until 1934, when they disbanded the firm in the depths of the Great Depression. Heister died at the age of 77 on March 20, 1948, in Washington. Thomas Yancey Milburn worked for the Works Progress Administration and as an engineer with a construction company before taking up architecture again after World War II. He moved permanently to Durham in about 1950 or 1952 and joined Durham's Committee of 110, a group that helped secure the Research Triangle Park for Durham County. He retired in 1962 and died in 1977.

Author: Daniel J. Vivian. Contributor: Claudia R. Brown.

Published 2009

Building List

Independence Building (Charlotte, Mecklenburg County)

Mecklenburg Charlotte

1908

Variant Name(s):
  • Realty Building
Contributors:
Dates: 1908-1909; 1927-1928 [addition]
Location: Charlotte, Mecklenburg County
Street Address: 100-102 W. Trade St., Charlotte, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Commercial
Images Published In:
  • Mary Norton Kratt and Mary Manning Boyer, Remembering Charlotte: Postcards from a New South City, 1905-1950 (2000).
  • Daniel J. Vivian, "'A Practical Architect': Frank P. Milburn and the Transformation of Architectural Practice in the New South, 1890-1925," Winterthur Portfolio (Spring, 2005).
Note:

The 12-story skyscraper was the first steel-framed skyscraper in North Carolina and an icon of Charlotte's urban ambitions. Originally known as the Realty Building, it was renamed in 1922 for the Independence Bank that occupied it. In 1928, New York architect William Lee Stoddart added two more stories. It was imploded in 1981 amid strong controversy.

Independence Building

Vance County Courthouse (Henderson, Vance County)

Vance Henderson

1884

Contributors:
Dates: 1884; 1908 [remodeled]
Location: Henderson, Vance County
Street Address: Young St., Henderson, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Public
Images Published In:
  • Ann Melanie Murphy, An Inventory of Historic Architecture, Henderson, North Carolina (1979).
Note:

This project was a thorough remodeling of the 1884 courthouse, including a completely new façade.

Vance County Courthouse

Southern Railway Station (Asheville, Buncombe County)

Buncombe Asheville

1905

Contributors:
Dates: Ca. 1905
Location: Asheville, Buncombe County
Street Address: Asheville, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Transportation

Southern Railway Station

Buncombe County Courthouse (Asheville, Buncombe County)

Buncombe Asheville

1927

Contributors:
Dates: 1927
Location: Asheville, Buncombe County
Street Address: 60 Court Square, Asheville, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Public
Images Published In:
  • Catherine W. Bishir, Michael T. Southern, and Jennifer F. Martin, A Guide to the Historic Architecture of Western North Carolina (1999).

Buncombe County Courthouse

Burke County Courthouse (Morganton, Burke County)

Burke Morganton

1837

Contributors:
Dates: 1837; 1901 [remodeled]
Location: Morganton, Burke County
Street Address: Courthouse Square, Morganton, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Public
Images Published In:
  • Catherine W. Bishir, Michael T. Southern, and Jennifer F. Martin, A Guide to the Historic Architecture of Western North Carolina (1999).

Burke County Courthouse

Southern Railway Station (Durham, Durham County)

Durham Durham

1904

Contributors:
Dates: 1904-1905
Location: Durham, Durham County
Street Address: Durham, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Transportation

Southern Railway Station

First National Bank Building (Durham, Durham County)

Durham Durham

1913

Contributors:
Dates: 1913-1915
Location: Durham, Durham County
Street Address: 123 W. Main St., Durham, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Commercial
Images Published In:
  • Catherine W. Bishir, North Carolina Architecture (1990).
  • Claudia P. Roberts (Brown) and Diane E. Lea, The Durham Architectural and Historic Inventory (1982).
  • Daniel J. Vivian, "'A Practical Architect': Frank P. Milburn and the Transformation of Architectural Practice in the New South, 1890-1925," Winterthur Portfolio (Spring, 2005).

First National Bank Building

Durham County Courthouse (Durham, Durham County)

Durham Durham

1916

Contributors:
Dates: 1916
Location: Durham, Durham County
Street Address: 208 E. Main St., Durham, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Public
Images Published In:
  • Catherine W. Bishir and Michael T. Southern, A Guide to the Historic Architecture of Piedmont North Carolina (2003).
  • Claudia P. Roberts (Brown) and Diane E. Lea, The Durham Architectural and Historic Inventory (1982).
  • Daniel J. Vivian, "'A Practical Architect': Frank P. Milburn and the Transformation of Architectural Practice in the New South, 1890-1925," Winterthur Portfolio (Spring, 2005).

Durham County Courthouse

First Presbyterian Church (Durham, Durham County)

Durham Durham

1916

Contributors:
Dates: 1916
Location: Durham, Durham County
Street Address: 305 E. Main St., Durham, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Religious
Images Published In:
  • Claudia P. Roberts (Brown) and Diane E. Lea, The Durham Architectural and Historic Inventory (1982).

Dillard House (Durham, Durham County)

Durham Durham

1917

Contributors:
Dates: 1917
Location: Durham, Durham County
Street Address: 1311 N. Mangum St., Durham, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Residential
Images Published In:
  • Claudia P. Roberts (Brown) and Diane E. Lea, The Durham Architectural and Historic Inventory (1982).

Alexander Motor Company Building (Durham, Durham County)

Durham Durham

1923

Contributors:
Dates: 1923
Location: Durham, Durham County
Street Address: 330 E. Main St., Durham, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Commercial
Images Published In:
  • Claudia P. Roberts (Brown) and Diane E. Lea, The Durham Architectural and Historic Inventory (1982).

Lincoln Hospital (Durham, Durham County)

Durham Durham

1924

Contributors:
Dates: 1924
Location: Durham, Durham County
Street Address: 1301 Fayetteville St., Durham, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Health Care
Images Published In:
  • Claudia P. Roberts (Brown) and Diane E. Lea, The Durham Architectural and Historic Inventory (1982).

King's Daughters Home (Durham, Durham County)

Durham Durham

1925

Contributors:
Dates: 1925
Location: Durham, Durham County
Street Address: 204 N. Buchanan Blvd., Durham, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Residential
Images Published In:
  • Claudia P. Roberts (Brown) and Diane E. Lea, The Durham Architectural and Historic Inventory (1982).

Durham Auditorium (Durham, Durham County)

Durham Durham

1926

Variant Name(s):
  • Carolina Theatre
Contributors:
Dates: 1926
Location: Durham, Durham County
Street Address: 211 Roney St., Durham, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Commercial
Images Published In:
  • Claudia P. Roberts (Brown) and Diane E. Lea, The Durham Architectural and Historic Inventory (1982).

Durham City Hall (Durham, Durham County)

Durham Durham

1904

Contributors:
Dates: 1904; 1926 [remodeled]
Location: Durham, Durham County
Street Address: 120 Morris St., Durham, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Public
Images Published In:
  • Claudia P. Roberts (Brown) and Diane E. Lea, The Durham Architectural and Historic Inventory (1982).
Note:

The building was erected as a high school in 1904 and remodeled as the city hall in 1926.

McPherson Hospital (Durham, Durham County)

Durham Durham

1926

Contributors:
Dates: 1926
Location: Durham, Durham County
Street Address: 1110 W. Main St., Durham, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Health Care
Images Published In:
  • Claudia P. Roberts (Brown) and Diane E. Lea, The Durham Architectural and Historic Inventory (1982).

Durham High School (Durham, Durham County)

Durham Durham

1930

Contributors:
Dates: 1930
Location: Durham, Durham County
Street Address: N. Duke St., Durham, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Educational
Images Published In:
  • Claudia P. Roberts (Brown) and Diane E. Lea, The Durham Architectural and Historic Inventory (1982).

Rocky Mount National Bank (Rocky Mount, Edgecombe County)

Edgecombe Rocky Mount

1918

Contributors:
Dates: Ca. 1918
Location: Rocky Mount, Edgecombe County
Street Address: 101 Southeast Main St., Rocky Mount, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Commercial
Images Published In:
  • Catherine W. Bishir and Michael T. Southern, A Guide to the Historic Architecture of Eastern North Carolina (1996).

Rocky Mount National Bank

Forsyth County Courthouse (Winston-Salem, Forsyth County)

Forsyth Winston-Salem

1893

Contributors:
Dates: 1893-1896
Location: Winston-Salem, Forsyth County
Street Address: Winston-Salem, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Public
Images Published In:
  • Molly Grogan Rawls, Winston-Salem in Vintage Postcards (2004).
  • Molly Grogan Rawls, Winston-Salem: Then and Now (2008).
  • Daniel J. Vivian, "'A Practical Architect': Frank P. Milburn and the Transformation of Architectural Practice in the New South, 1890-1925," Winterthur Portfolio (Spring, 2005).
Note:

This building was not demolished. The 1926/1927 renovation/alteration enlarged the building, resulting in a different façade. The turrets and bell tower were removed, but the 1897 building rests within the walls of the current building.

Forsyth County Courthouse

P. H. Hanes House (Winston-Salem, Forsyth County)

Forsyth Winston-Salem

1900

Contributors:
Dates: Ca. 1900
Location: Winston-Salem, Forsyth County
Street Address: 1200 Glade St., Winston-Salem, NC
Status: Altered
Type:
  • Residential
Images Published In:
  • Gwynne Stephens Taylor, From Frontier to Factory: An Architectural History of Forsyth County (1981).

Union Station (Winston-Salem, Forsyth County)

Forsyth Winston-Salem

1904

Contributors:
Dates: 1904
Location: Winston-Salem, Forsyth County
Street Address: Winston-Salem, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Transportation
Images Published In:
  • Molly Grogan Rawls, Winston-Salem in Vintage Postcards (2004).

Wachovia Bank and Trust Company Building (Winston-Salem, Forsyth County)

Forsyth Winston-Salem

1911

Variant Name(s):
  • Wachovia National Bank Building
Contributors:
Dates: 1911; 1917-1918 [addition and renovation]
Location: Winston-Salem, Forsyth County
Street Address: 8 West 3rd St., Winston-Salem, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Commercial
Images Published In:
  • Catherine W. Bishir and Michael T. Southern, A Guide to the Historic Architecture of Piedmont North Carolina (2003).
  • Edwin E. Bouldin, Jr., Architectural Guide to Winston-Salem and Forsyth County (1978).
  • Molly Grogan Rawls, Winston-Salem in Vintage Postcards (2004).
Note:

Wachovia, a banking company that originated in Winston-Salem, began the city's early 20th century "race to the sky" with Milburn and Heister's 7-story steel-framed skyscraper. After the O'Hanlon Building (see Northup and O'Brien) was built to 8 stories in 1914, Wachovia had Milburn and Heister add another story to their edifice. Both were soon eclipsed by taller buildings.

Wachovia Bank and Trust Company Building

Gaston County Courthouse (Gastonia, Gaston County)

Gaston Gastonia

1911

Contributors:
Dates: 1911
Location: Gastonia, Gaston County
Street Address: 151 South St., Gastonia, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Public
Images Published In:
  • Catherine W. Bishir and Michael T. Southern, A Guide to the Historic Architecture of Piedmont North Carolina (2003).

Gaston County Courthouse

Third National Bank (Gastonia, Gaston County)

Gaston Gastonia

1923

Contributors:
Dates: 1923
Location: Gastonia, Gaston County
Street Address: 195 W. Main St., Gastonia, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Commercial

Third National Bank

Southern Loan and Trust Building (Greensboro, Guilford County)

Guilford Greensboro

1900

Contributors:
Dates: Ca. 1900
Location: Greensboro, Guilford County
Street Address: Greensboro, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Commercial

Oakhurst (Oak Ridge, Guilford County)

Guilford Oak Ridge

1897

Contributors:
Dates: 1897
Location: Oak Ridge, Guilford County
Street Address: Jct. NC 68 and NC 150, Oak Ridge, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Residential
Images Published In:
  • Catherine W. Bishir and Michael T. Southern, A Guide to the Historic Architecture of Piedmont North Carolina (2003).

Oakhurst

Hoke County Courthouse (Raeford, Hoke County)

Hoke Raeford

1911

Contributors:
Dates: 1911
Location: Raeford, Hoke County
Street Address: Main St. and Edenborough St., Raeford, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Public

Hoke County Courthouse

Mecklenburg County Courthouse (Charlotte, Mecklenburg County)

Mecklenburg Charlotte

1897

Contributors:
Dates: Ca. 1897
Location: Charlotte, Mecklenburg County
Street Address: 301 S. Tryon St., Charlotte, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Public
Images Published In:
  • Mary Norton Kratt and Mary Manning Boyer, Remembering Charlotte: Postcards from a New South City, 1905-1950 (2000).
  • Daniel J. Vivian, "'A Practical Architect': Frank P. Milburn and the Transformation of Architectural Practice in the New South, 1890-1925," Winterthur Portfolio (Spring, 2005).

Mecklenburg County Courthouse

Piedmont Fire Insurance Building (Charlotte, Mecklenburg County)

Mecklenburg Charlotte

1898

Contributors:
Dates: Ca. 1898/1900
Location: Charlotte, Mecklenburg County
Street Address: Charlotte, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Commercial
Images Published In:
  • Mary Norton Kratt and Mary Manning Boyer, Remembering Charlotte: Postcards from a New South City, 1905-1950 (2000).

Elks Club (Charlotte, Mecklenburg County)

Mecklenburg Charlotte

1899

Contributors:
Dates: 1899
Location: Charlotte, Mecklenburg County
Street Address: NE corner Tryon St. and 5th St., Charlotte, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Fraternal
Images Published In:
  • Mary Norton Kratt and Mary Manning Boyer, Remembering Charlotte: Postcards from a New South City, 1905-1950 (2000).

Wayne County Courthouse (Goldsboro, Wayne County)

Wayne Goldsboro

1913

Contributors:
Dates: 1913
Location: Goldsboro, Wayne County
Street Address: 224 E. Walnut St., Goldsboro, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Public
Images Published In:
  • J. Daniel Pezzoni and Penne Smith, Glimpses of Wayne County, North Carolina: An Architectural History (1998).
  • Daniel J. Vivian, "'A Practical Architect': Frank P. Milburn and the Transformation of Architectural Practice in the New South, 1890-1925," Winterthur Portfolio (Spring, 2005).
Note:

The courthouse was described as Rose's work in his interview with the Goldsboro News-Argus, March 1, 1951.

Wayne County Courthouse

Heathcote (Charlotte, Mecklenburg County)

Mecklenburg Charlotte

1899

Variant Name(s):
  • Benjamin Dawson Heath House
Contributors:
Dates: Ca. 1899
Location: Charlotte, Mecklenburg County
Street Address: Central Ave. at Louise Ave., Charlotte, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Residential
Images Published In:
  • Mary Norton Kratt and Mary Manning Boyer, Remembering Charlotte: Postcards from a New South City, 1905-1950 (2000).

First Ward Graded School (Charlotte, Mecklenburg County)

Mecklenburg Charlotte

1900

Contributors:
Dates: Ca. 1900
Location: Charlotte, Mecklenburg County
Street Address: Charlotte, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Educational

Charlotte Sanatorium (Charlotte, Mecklenburg County)

Mecklenburg Charlotte

1903

Contributors:
Dates: Ca. 1903
Location: Charlotte, Mecklenburg County
Street Address: 127 S. 7th St. (at Church St.), Charlotte, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Commercial
Images Published In:
  • Mary Norton Kratt and Mary Manning Boyer, Remembering Charlotte: Postcards from a New South City, 1905-1950 (2000).

Charlotte National Bank Building (Charlotte, Mecklenburg County)

Mecklenburg Charlotte

1903

Contributors:
Dates: Ca. 1903
Location: Charlotte, Mecklenburg County
Street Address: Charlotte, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Commercial

Stonewall Hotel (Charlotte, Mecklenburg County)

Mecklenburg Charlotte

1903

Contributors:
Dates: Ca. 1903/1907
Location: Charlotte, Mecklenburg County
Street Address: 535 W. Trade St., Charlotte, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Commercial
Images Published In:
  • Mary Norton Kratt and Mary Manning Boyer, Remembering Charlotte: Postcards from a New South City, 1905-1950 (2000).

Southern Railway Passenger Station (Charlotte, Mecklenburg County)

Mecklenburg Charlotte

1905

Contributors:
Dates: 1905
Location: Charlotte, Mecklenburg County
Street Address: Charlotte, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Transportation
Images Published In:
  • Mary Norton Kratt and Mary Manning Boyer, Remembering Charlotte: Postcards from a New South City, 1905-1950 (2000).

Southern Railway Passenger Station

Rocky Mount Savings Bank (Rocky Mount, Nash County)

Nash Rocky Mount

1926

Contributors:
Dates: 1926
Location: Rocky Mount, Nash County
Street Address: 142 SW Main St., Rocky Mount, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Commercial

Alumni Hall (Chapel Hill, Orange County)

Orange Chapel Hill

1898

Contributors:
Dates: 1898-1901
Location: Chapel Hill, Orange County
Street Address: University of North Carolina Campus, Chapel Hill, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Educational
Images Published In:
  • John V. Allcott, The Campus at Chapel Hill: Two Hundred Years of Architecture (1986).
  • Catherine W. Bishir and Michael T. Southern, A Guide to the Historic Architecture of Piedmont North Carolina (2003).
  • M. Ruth Little, The Town and Gown Architecture of Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 1795-1975 (2006).

Alumni Hall

Bynum Gymnasium (Orange County)

Orange

1904

Contributors:
Dates: 1904
Location: Orange County
Street Address: University of North Carolina Campus, Chapel Hill, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Educational

Bynum Gymnasium

Mary Ann Smith Building (Chapel Hill, Orange County)

Orange Chapel Hill

1904

Contributors:
Dates: 1904
Location: Chapel Hill, Orange County
Street Address: University of North Carolina Campus, Chapel Hill, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Educational
Images Published In:
  • John V. Allcott, The Campus at Chapel Hill: Two Hundred Years of Architecture (1986).
  • M. Ruth Little, The Town and Gown Architecture of Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 1795-1975 (2006).

Howell Hall (Chapel Hill, Orange County)

Orange Chapel Hill

1906

Contributors:
Dates: 1906
Location: Chapel Hill, Orange County
Street Address: University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Educational

Howell Hall

President's House (Chapel Hill, Orange County)

Orange Chapel Hill

1907

Contributors:
Dates: 1907
Location: Chapel Hill, Orange County
Street Address: 400 E. Franklin St., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Residential
Images Published In:
  • M. Ruth Little, The Town and Gown Architecture of Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 1795-1975 (2006).
  • Daniel J. Vivian, "'A Practical Architect': Frank P. Milburn and the Transformation of Architectural Practice in the New South, 1890-1925," Winterthur Portfolio (Spring, 2005).

President's House

YMCA Building (Chapel Hill, Orange County)

Orange Chapel Hill

1907

Contributors:
Dates: 1907
Location: Chapel Hill, Orange County
Street Address: University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Educational
Images Published In:
  • John V. Allcott, The Campus at Chapel Hill: Two Hundred Years of Architecture (1986).
  • M. Ruth Little, The Town and Gown Architecture of Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 1795-1975 (2006).

YMCA Building

Hill Hall (Chapel Hill, Orange County)

Orange Chapel Hill

1907

Variant Name(s):
  • Carnegie Library
Contributors:
Dates: 1907; 1930 [remodeled]
Location: Chapel Hill, Orange County
Street Address: University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Educational
Images Published In:
  • M. Ruth Little, The Town and Gown Architecture of Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 1795-1975 (2006).
  • Daniel J. Vivian, "'A Practical Architect': Frank P. Milburn and the Transformation of Architectural Practice in the New South, 1890-1925," Winterthur Portfolio (Spring, 2005).

Davie Hall (Chapel Hill, Orange County)

Orange Chapel Hill

1908

Contributors:
Dates: 1908
Location: Chapel Hill, Orange County
Street Address: University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Educational

Davie Hall

Battle-Vance-Pettigrew Dormitory (Chapel Hill, Orange County)

Orange Chapel Hill

1912

Contributors:
Dates: 1912
Location: Chapel Hill, Orange County
Street Address: University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Educational
Images Published In:
  • John V. Allcott, The Campus at Chapel Hill: Two Hundred Years of Architecture (1986).
  • M. Ruth Little, The Town and Gown Architecture of Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 1795-1975 (2006).
Note:

Thomas Wolfe roomed here while he was a student at the university.

Caldwell Hall (Chapel Hill, Orange County)

Orange Chapel Hill

1912

Contributors:
Dates: 1912
Location: Chapel Hill, Orange County
Street Address: University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Educational

Caldwell Hall

Peabody Hall (Chapel Hill, Orange County)

Orange Chapel Hill

1913

Contributors:
Dates: 1913
Location: Chapel Hill, Orange County
Street Address: University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC
Status: Altered
Type:
  • Educational
Images Published In:
  • Daniel J. Vivian, "'A Practical Architect': Frank P. Milburn and the Transformation of Architectural Practice in the New South, 1890-1925," Winterthur Portfolio (Spring, 2005).

Swain Hall (Chapel Hill, Orange County)

Orange Chapel Hill

1914

Contributors:
Dates: 1914
Location: Chapel Hill, Orange County
Street Address: University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Educational

Elizabeth City High School (Elizabeth City, Pasquotank County)

Pasquotank Elizabeth City

1921

Contributors:
Dates: 1921
Location: Elizabeth City, Pasquotank County
Street Address: 306 N. Road St., Elizabeth City, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Educational
Images Published In:
  • Thomas R. Butchko, On the Shores of the Pasquotank: The Architectural Heritage of Elizabeth City and Pasquotank County, North Carolina (1989).

Pitt County Courthouse (Greenville, Pitt County)

Pitt Greenville

1910

Contributors:
Dates: 1910-1911
Location: Greenville, Pitt County
Street Address: Greenville, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Public
Images Published In:
  • Catherine W. Bishir, North Carolina Architecture (1990).
  • Catherine W. Bishir and Michael T. Southern, A Guide to the Historic Architecture of Eastern North Carolina (1996).
  • Scott Power, The Historical Architecture of Pitt County, North Carolina (1991).

Pitt County Courthouse

Robeson County Courthouse (Lumberton, Robeson County)

Robeson Lumberton

1908

Contributors:
Dates: 1908
Location: Lumberton, Robeson County
Street Address: Chestnut St., Lumberton, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Public
Images Published In:
  • Diane E. Lea and Claudia P. Roberts (Brown), An Architectural and Historical Survey: Central Lumberton, North Carolina (1980).

Robeson County Courthouse

Rockingham County Courthouse (Wentworth, Rockingham County)

Rockingham Wentworth

1907

Contributors:
Dates: 1907
Location: Wentworth, Rockingham County
Street Address: 1086 NC 65, Wentworth, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Public

Rockingham County Courthouse

Grubb-Wallace Building (Salisbury, Rowan County)

Rowan Salisbury

1900

Contributors:
Dates: Ca. 1900
Location: Salisbury, Rowan County
Street Address: 100 N. Main St., Salisbury, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Commercial
Images Published In:
  • Catherine W. Bishir and Michael T. Southern, A Guide to the Historic Architecture of Piedmont North Carolina (2003).
  • Davyd Foard Hood, The Architecture of Rowan County North Carolina: A Catalogue and History of Surviving 18th, 19th, and Early 20th Century Structures (1983).
Note:

The image shows the Grubb-Wallace Building on the right.

Grubb-Wallace Building

Empire Hotel (Salisbury, Rowan County)

Rowan Salisbury

1907

Contributors:
Dates: 1907
Location: Salisbury, Rowan County
Street Address: 212-226 S. Main St., Salisbury, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Commercial
Images Published In:
  • Catherine W. Bishir and Michael T. Southern, A Guide to the Historic Architecture of Piedmont North Carolina (2003).
  • Davyd Foard Hood, The Architecture of Rowan County North Carolina: A Catalogue and History of Surviving 18th, 19th, and Early 20th Century Structures (1983).

Empire Hotel

Salisbury Passenger Depot (Salisbury, Rowan County)

Rowan Salisbury

1907

Contributors:
Dates: 1907-1908
Location: Salisbury, Rowan County
Street Address: Depot St., Salisbury, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Transportation
Images Published In:
  • Catherine W. Bishir, North Carolina Architecture (1990).
  • Catherine W. Bishir and Michael T. Southern, A Guide to the Historic Architecture of Piedmont North Carolina (2003).
Note:

Of all the major passenger stations Milburn designed for North Carolina towns, only this one survives. Rescued and restored through local preservation efforts, it is currently a community center and Amtrak station.

Salisbury Passenger Depot

Spencer YMCA (Spencer, Rowan County)

Rowan Spencer

1904

Contributors:
Dates: Ca. 1904
Location: Spencer, Rowan County
Street Address: S. Salisbury St. at Sixth St., Spencer, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Recreational

Swain County Courthouse (Bryson City, Swain County)

Swain Bryson City

1908

Contributors:
Dates: 1908
Location: Bryson City, Swain County
Street Address: 101 Mitchell St., Bryson City, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Public
Images Published In:
  • Catherine W. Bishir, Michael T. Southern, and Jennifer F. Martin, A Guide to the Historic Architecture of Western North Carolina (1999).

Swain County Courthouse

First National Bank of Henderson (Henderson, Vance County)

Vance Henderson

1921

Contributors:
Dates: 1921
Location: Henderson, Vance County
Street Address: 213-215 S. Garnett St., Henderson, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Commercial
Images Published In:
  • Ann Melanie Murphy, An Inventory of Historic Architecture, Henderson, North Carolina (1979).

Capitol Club (Raleigh, Wake County)

Wake Raleigh

1898

Contributors:
Dates: Ca. 1898
Location: Raleigh, Wake County
Street Address: Raleigh, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Commercial

School for the Deaf and Blind Dormitory (Raleigh, Wake County)

Wake Raleigh

1898

Contributors:
Dates: 1898
Location: Raleigh, Wake County
Street Address: NE corner of W. Jones St. and Dawson St., Raleigh, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Educational
Images Published In:
  • Linda L. Harris and Mary Ann Lee, An Architectural and Historical Inventory of Raleigh, North Carolina (1978).

Professional Building (Raleigh, Wake County)

Wake Raleigh

1925

Contributors:
Dates: 1925
Location: Raleigh, Wake County
Street Address: 123-127 West Hargett St., Raleigh, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Commercial
Images Published In:
  • Linda L. Harris and Mary Ann Lee, An Architectural and Historical Inventory of Raleigh, North Carolina (1978).

Warren County Courthouse (Warrenton, Warren County)

Warren Warrenton

1906

Contributors:
Dates: 1906-1907
Location: Warrenton, Warren County
Street Address: Court Square, Warrenton, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Public
Images Published In:
  • Catherine W. Bishir and Michael T. Southern, A Guide to the Historic Architecture of Piedmont North Carolina (2003).

Warren County Courthouse

Frank Pierce Milburn's Work Locations

Bibliography

  • Charlotte Vestal Brown Papers, Special Collections Research Center, North Carolina State University Libraries, Raleigh, North Carolina.
  • Mary Norton Kratt and Mary Manning Boyer, Remembering Charlotte: Postcards from a New South City, 1905-1950 (2000).
  • Frank Pierce Milburn, Designs from the Work of Frank P. Milburn, Architect, Columbia, S.C. (1901).
  • Frank Pierce Milburn, Designs from the Work of Frank P. Milburn, Architect, Columbia, S.C. (1903).
  • Frank Pierce Milburn, Designs from the Work of Frank P. Milburn, Architect, Columbia, S.C. (1905).
  • Daniel J. Vivian, "'A Practical Architect': Frank P. Milburn and the Transformation of Architectural Practice in the New South, 1890-1925," Winterthur Portfolio (Spring, 2005).
  • Lawrence Wodehouse, "Frank Pierce Milburn (1868-1926), A Major Southern Architect," North Carolina Historical Review, Vol. 50 (July, 1973).
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