North Carolina Architects and Builders - A Biographical Dictionary

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Zachary and Zachary (fl. 1890s)

Headquarters:
  • Alamance County, North Carolina
  • Raleigh, North Carolina
Trades:
  • Contractor
NC Work Locations:
  • Burlington, Alamance County
  • Alamance
  • Durham, Durham County
  • Durham
  • Tarboro, Edgecombe County
  • Edgecombe
  • Rocky Mount, Nash County
  • Nash
  • Wilmington, New Hanover County
  • New Hanover
  • Chapel Hill, Orange County
  • Orange
  • Raleigh, Wake County
  • Wake
Building Types:
  • Commercial;
  • Educational;
  • Industrial
Styles & Forms:
  • Beaux-Arts;
  • Italianate;
  • Romanesque Revival

Alumni Building [Chapel Hill]

View larger image and credits

Alumni Building [Chapel Hill]

Biography

Zachary and Zachary was a contracting and building supply firm active in Raleigh and Wilmington from the early 1890s until about 1901. Its principals were father and son Henry Clay (H. C.) Zachary (1848-1907) and Arthur D. Zachary (1872-1938). Both were born in Alamance County, where Henry Clay Zachary began his career as a house carpenter. About 1893, father and son moved to Raleigh. Their practice, known as Zachary and Zachary, took on major projects in Raleigh, Chapel Hill, and Wilmington, specializing in institutional and industrial buildings, including textile mills.

The Zachary family had deep roots in Alamance County, where the family (variously spelled Zeachery, Zackery, etc.) was numerous. According to family genealogies, Henry Clay Zachary was the son of William Zachary (1818-1872) and a descendant of early settlers in the part of Orange County that became Alamance. In 1880 Henry Zeachery, aged 32, was a house carpenter and head of a household in Newlin township that included his wife Mary Ann (Cates), 30, also of a large local family, and their children William, 10, Arthur D., 8, James W., 6, and Bettie W., 1. More children soon followed. Henry Clay Zachary soon joined in the industrial development then taking place in Alamance County and the larger Piedmont. Through his wife's family, he was linked with J.W. Cates and Brothers, a contracting and building supply company in Alamance County, and he probably had associations with Holt family, the county's leading textile mill developers. By the early 1890s, when he and his son moved to Raleigh, H. C. Zachary had developed his building and management skills sufficiently to engage in large industrial projects. In many cases, Zachary and Zachary built from architects' or engineers' designs, and their work gained respect from both clients and architects.

In 1899 the Raleigh News and Observer of August 24 carried a story summarizing the accomplishments of the firm. Citing the two men as native North Carolinians from Alamance County, the newspaper reported that H. C. Zachary had twenty-five years' experience in construction and had moved to Raleigh with his son Arthur "some six years ago." H. C. ran the contracting and building end of the business, while his son operated the building supply business, which also specialized in fine mantels and fittings. In the previous five years, the 1899 account stated, Zachary and Zachary had constructed four major cotton mills—Pilot Cotton Mills in Raleigh, the E. M. Holt Plaid Mills in Burlington, the Tarboro Cotton Mills and, one of the largest mills in the state, the Erwin Cotton Mills in Durham. In the same period the firm had built the University Inn at Chapel Hill and additions to the North Carolina Insane Asylum in Raleigh.

With these impressive works to their credit, Zachary and Zachary soon took on additional projects and expanded their operations and geographical range. Among their projects were the principal buildings at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill in the period: Alumni Hall, the Carr Building, and the Mary Ann Smith Building. They also took the contract for the textile factory, Delgado Cotton Mills, in Wilmington, in 1899 (which had a Holt family connection), and erected other buildings in the port city. The Wilmington Weekly Star of May 26, 1899, carried a laudatory account of the firm's work, stressing their other textile mill work along with their local Delgado project, and stating that they were to open a Wilmington office soon. The "clever manager" at their branch office in Wilmington was W. L. Cates (a relative by marriage). Other large projects in the same period included work for the Atlantic Coastline Railroad in Rocky Mount and the Methodist Orphanage in Raleigh.

By the end of 1900, however, the firm began to cut back its operations. They closed the Wilmington office in January 1901, consolidating operations in Raleigh. In March 1901, Zachary and Zachary advertised their shop at 108 W. Martin Street as a source of "artistic wood mantels," and other fireplace fittings, indicating that H. C. Zachary, the contractor and builder, was less active in the business, while his son, always in charge of the mantel works, was continuing. The United States census of 1900 listed H. C. Zachary, a contractor aged 60, in Raleigh with his wife, Mary (Cates) Zachary and their daughters Ellen, Bessie, and Mary; Arthur D. was listed as a merchant, living with his wife Maggie. In 1902 Arthur D. Zachary announced that he was the manager of the Zachary Mantel Company, successor to the construction firm of Zachary and Zachary. Henry Clay Zachary died in 1907 and was buried in Pine Hill Cemetery in Burlington. By 1920 Arthur and his family had moved to Florida, where they lived with his widowed mother Mary and sister Bessie; Arthur and Maggie Zachary were still there in 1930. Arthur died in 1938 and was buried in Lakeview Cemetery in Sanford, Florida; Maggie Zachary died in Florida in 1972.

Author: William B. Bushong. Updates: Angie Clifton and Catherine W. Bishir. Contributor: Carl R. Lounsbury.

Published 2010

Building List

Alumni Hall (Chapel Hill, Orange County)

Orange Chapel Hill

1898

Contributors:
Dates: 1898-1901
Location: Chapel Hill, Orange County
Street Address: University of North Carolina Campus, Chapel Hill, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Educational
Images Published In:
  • John V. Allcott, The Campus at Chapel Hill: Two Hundred Years of Architecture (1986).
  • Catherine W. Bishir and Michael T. Southern, A Guide to the Historic Architecture of Piedmont North Carolina (2003).
  • M. Ruth Little, The Town and Gown Architecture of Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 1795-1975 (2006).

Alumni Hall

Mary Ann Smith Building (Chapel Hill, Orange County)

Orange Chapel Hill

1904

Contributors:
Dates: 1904
Location: Chapel Hill, Orange County
Street Address: University of North Carolina Campus, Chapel Hill, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Educational
Images Published In:
  • John V. Allcott, The Campus at Chapel Hill: Two Hundred Years of Architecture (1986).
  • M. Ruth Little, The Town and Gown Architecture of Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 1795-1975 (2006).

Mary Ann Smith Building

S. and B. Solomon Building (Wilmington, New Hanover County)

New Hanover Wilmington

1897

Contributors:
Dates: 1897
Location: Wilmington, New Hanover County
Street Address: 1 S Front St., Wilmington, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Commercial

S. and B. Solomon Building

I. M. Bear Store (Wilmington, New Hanover County)

New Hanover Wilmington

1900

Contributors:
Dates: 1900
Location: Wilmington, New Hanover County
Street Address: Front St. and Mulberry (now Grace) St., Wilmington, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Commercial

Munson and Company Store (Wilmington, New Hanover County)

New Hanover Wilmington

1900

Contributors:
Dates: 1900 [remodeled]
Location: Wilmington, New Hanover County
Street Address: 32 N. Front St., Wilmington, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Commercial

E. M. Holt Plaid Mills (Burlington, Alamance County)

Alamance Burlington

1894

Contributors:
Dates: ca. 1894-1899
Location: Burlington, Alamance County
Street Address: W. Webb Ave., Burlington, NC
Status: Unknown
Type:
  • Industrial
Note:

The E. M. Holt Plaid Mills in Burlington was organized in 1883, and its original complex was expanded and altered over the years.

Erwin Cotton Mills (Durham, Durham County)

Durham Durham

1893

Contributors:
Dates: 1893; ca. 1898
Location: Durham, Durham County
Street Address: 2000-2400 W. Main St., Durham, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Industrial
Images Published In:
  • Catherine W. Bishir and Michael T. Southern, A Guide to the Historic Architecture of Piedmont North Carolina (2003).
  • Claudia P. Roberts (Brown) and Diane E. Lea, The Durham Architectural and Historic Inventory (1982).
Note:

According to the News and Observer of August 24, 1899, Zachary and Zachary had built the Erwin Cotton Mills in Durham, which the newspaper cited as one of the largest mills in the state. The first section of the mill was built in 1893; it was expanded by 1898; and further expansions followed in 1907 and subsequent years. Erwin Mills was established in 1892 when the Duke family began to invest some of their tobacco profits in textile manufacturing; they employed William Allen Erwin, experienced in textiles with the Holt family in Alamance County, as secretary-treasurer. It is not known whether the Alamance County connection led to employment of Zachary and Zachary for the commission, which came during a general economic depression and must have been welcome work. The extensive complex has been rehabilitated for new uses and is a prominent landmark of the city. The postcard shows the Erwin Cotton Mills in the foreground and the Erwin Cotton Mill village (see Joseph Emory Sirrine) in the background.

Erwin Cotton Mills

Tarboro Cotton Mills (Tarboro, Edgecombe County)

Edgecombe Tarboro

1899

Contributors:
Dates: Ca. 1899
Location: Tarboro, Edgecombe County
Street Address: E. St. James St., Tarboro, NC
Status: Unknown
Type:
  • Industrial
Note:

The Tarboro Cotton Mills was established in the 1880s and expanded over the years. See the News and Observer, August 24, 1899, on Zachary and Zachary's role in its construction.

Atlantic Coastline Railroad Machine Shop (Rocky Mount, Nash County)

Nash Rocky Mount

1900

Contributors:
Dates: 1900
Location: Rocky Mount, Nash County
Street Address: Rocky Mount, NC
Status: Unknown
Type:
  • Transportation

Delgado Cotton Mills Office (Wilmington, New Hanover County)

New Hanover Wilmington

1899

Contributors:
Dates: 1899
Location: Wilmington, New Hanover County
Street Address: Wrightsville Ave., Wilmington, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Industrial
Images Published In:
  • Tony P. Wrenn, Wilmington, North Carolina: An Architectural and Historical Portrait (1984).

Delgado Cotton Mills (Wilmington, New Hanover County)

New Hanover Wilmington

1899

Contributors:
Dates: 1899
Location: Wilmington, New Hanover County
Street Address: Wrightsville Ave., Wilmington, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Industrial

S and B Solomon Store (Wilmington, New Hanover County)

New Hanover Wilmington

1899

Contributors:
Dates: 1899
Location: Wilmington, New Hanover County
Street Address: 1 S. Front St., Wilmington, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Commercial

Carr Building (Chapel Hill, Orange County)

Orange Chapel Hill

1899

Contributors:
Dates: 1899-1900
Location: Chapel Hill, Orange County
Street Address: University of North Carolina Campus, Chapel Hill, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Educational
Images Published In:
  • John V. Allcott, The Campus at Chapel Hill: Two Hundred Years of Architecture (1986).
  • M. Ruth Little, The Town and Gown Architecture of Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 1795-1975 (2006).
Note:

According to M. Ruth Little in The Town and Gown Architecture of Chapel Hill, this was the first building at the university built to function solely as a dormitory. The postcard shows the white Carr Building and Bynum Gymnasium (see Frank Pierce Milburn).

University Inn (Chapel Hill, Orange County)

Orange Chapel Hill

1890

Contributors:
Dates: 1890s
Location: Chapel Hill, Orange County
Street Address: Franklin St., Chapel Hill, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Commercial
Images Published In:
  • James Vickers, Chapel Hill (1996).
Note:

One of a series of inns near the campus, the University Inn burned in 1921.

Pilot Cotton Mills (Raleigh, Wake County)

Wake Raleigh

1894

Contributors:
Dates: Ca. 1894-1899
Location: Raleigh, Wake County
Street Address: Haynes St., Raleigh, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Industrial

North Carolina Insane Asylum Additions (Raleigh, Wake County)

Wake Raleigh

1894

Contributors:
Dates: Ca. 1894-1899
Location: Raleigh, Wake County
Street Address: Western Boulevard, Raleigh, NC
Status: Unknown
Type:
  • Health Care

Wiley Graded School (Raleigh, Wake County)

Wake Raleigh

1899

Contributors:
Dates: 1899
Location: Raleigh, Wake County
Street Address: Morgan St., Raleigh, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Educational

Methodist Orphanage Building (Raleigh, Wake County)

Wake Raleigh

1900

Contributors:
Dates: 1900
Location: Raleigh, Wake County
Street Address: Glenwood Ave., Raleigh, NC
Status: No longer standing
Type:
  • Institutional

Borden Building (Raleigh, Wake County)

Wake Raleigh

1900

Variant Name(s):
  • Methodist Orphanage
Contributors:
Dates: 1900
Location: Raleigh, Wake County
Street Address: Fletcher Park, Glenwood Ave., Raleigh, NC
Status: Standing
Type:
  • Educational
Note:

The Borden Building, among the first built at the Methodist Orphanage, still stands. Most of the initial buildings at that institution, including the Methodist Orphanage Main Building (1901) planned by Pearson, have been razed.

Zachary and Zachary's Work Locations

Bibliography

  • John V. Allcott, The Campus at Chapel Hill: Two Hundred Years of Architecture (1986).
  • Moses Amis, Historical Raleigh (1902).
  • Catherine W. Bishir, Charlotte V. Brown, Carl R. Lounsbury, and Ernest H. Wood III, Architects and Builders in North Carolina: A History of the Practice of Building (1990).
  • Charlotte Vestal Brown Papers, Special Collections Research Center, North Carolina State University Libraries, Raleigh, North Carolina.
  • Archibald Henderson, The Campus of the First State University (1949).
  • M. Ruth Little, The Town and Gown Architecture of Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 1795-1975 (2006).
  • Raleigh News and Observer, August 24, 1899; March 24, 1901.
  • Wilmington Dispatch, Aug. 7, 1899; Jan. 9, 20, 1900; Feb. 3, 9, 1900; Mar. 6, 10, 1900; April 27, 1900; May 16, 1900; June 20, 25, 1900.
  • Wilmington Messenger, Mar. 12, 1899; Oct. 27, 1899; Aug. 19, 1900; Dec. 1, 1900; May 11, 1901.
  • Wilmington Weekly Star, Apr. 28; May 26, 1899; Sept 22, 1899; Jan 1, 1901; Aug. 14, 1902.
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